264 TITANOTHERES CHAP, x Hyracodonts, and it is suggested that when swimming it was raised above the surface as with the Hippopotamus. "This feature/' observes Professor Osborn, « with the long curved tusks, undoubtedly used in uprooting, suggests the resemblance between the habits of these animals and those of the hippopotami." There were no horns in the Amynodonts. The face is shorter than in the Hyracodonts, and the mastoid is covered as in recent Rhino- ceroses. The canines are very strongly developed into tusks, but the incisors show signs of disappearance. We know of the genera Amynodon} Afetamynodon, and Cadurcotherium. AH except the last, which is European, are American in range, 7am. 4. Titanotheriiciae.—These Oligocene Ungulates, often attaining to large dimensions, are nearly peculiar, so far as is at present known, to the ISForth American Continent, and are at least most abundant in it.1 Many generic names, such as Titanotherium, Brontotherium, jE$rontopst Titanops, and Menodus, have been given to them ; but a recent study of the entire material accessible for description or already described has led Professor Osborn to the opinion that there was but a single genus, to which the name Titanotkerium must be applied. Of this genus there are some thirty well-characterised species, of which the gradual evolution can be traced from the lowest strata of the White River beds where their remains occur. An entire skeleton of T. robustum enables us to understand the osteology of these forms and to Bompare them with other Perissodactyles. This animal was more than 13 feet long, standing some 7 feet 7 inches in height. It seems to have presented during life the aspect of a Rhinoceros with aerliaps a touch of Elephant. The skull is not unlike that of a Rhinoceros in general dimensions and shape; but there are a pair >£ apparent horn cores anteriorly, which are smaller in the more incient forms and acquire a large size, a forward direction with a iivergenee of the two in the later forms. A glance at the wcompanyiag figures of skulls (Fig. 137) of early and later Kfeaaotheres will exhibit the changes in this particular which the fculls underwent in the lapse of time occupied by the deposition rf these Oligoeene beds. The nasals are short in the later, longer n tite naoie early species, such as T. heloceras and T. coloradense. ^ zygomatic arch projects much, and is "shelf-like" in the fenoas, the skull thus getting an immense breadth, which, 3 of tlk® genus have been met with in the Balkans.